1. Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI)
In certain instances of coronary artery disease, the narrowing of the artery is so great that the lack of blood flow starves the heart muscle of oxygen. An interventional procedure called PCI may then be needed to mechanically open up the severe blockage and restore blood flow to the affected heart muscle
a. Balloon Angioplasty
- A small balloon is inflated within the narrowed portion of the coronary artery, pushing aside the cholesterol-laden plaque against the artery walls and improving the blood flow. The balloon may be uncoated or coated with a drug to reduce re-narrowing in the treated area.
b. Stent Implantation
- A metallic mesh tube is delivered on an angioplasty balloon to the narrowed portion of the blocked artery and permanently implanted to support the artery walls and improve blood flow. The stent may be uncoated or coated with a medication to prevent an overgrowth of the artery lining that can occur as a reaction to the stent implantation.
c. Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold (BVS) Implantation (‘dissolvable stent’)
- The latest advance in the treatment of coronary artery disease
- A non-metallic mesh tube is delivered on an angioplasty balloon to treat a narrowed artery, similar to a stent, but slowly dissolves away over 3 years once the blocked artery can function naturally again and stay open on its own.